‘Why do you act this way towards your wife and your sons?’

Aaron has abandoned his family in Egypt and settled in Seleucia (modern Silifke in Turkey). Believing him dead, his father-in-law was surprised to receive a letter from Aaron. In this reply, his father-in-law, who is called Sa‘d, expresses happiness at his return from the dead, but reminds him that he has been shirking his responsibilities for 23 years to his wife and children back home. Nevertheless, he is polite and paints a pleasant picture of life in Egypt, evidently trying to tempt Aaron back.

Egypt, 10th/11th century

Hebrew, parchment

T-S 12.179

Extended captions